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Melissa Lucio, 52, is set to be executed Wednesday for the death of her 2-year-old daughter Mariah in Harlingen, a city of about 75,000 in Texas’ southern tip.
Her lawyers say new evidence shows that Mariah’s injuries, including a blow to the head, were caused by a fall down a steep staircase, and many lawmakers and celebrities such as Kim Kardashian, an advocate for criminal justice reform, and Amanda Knox – an American who was convicted of murdering a British student in Italy and whose conviction was overturned – have rallied to Lucio’s cause. Prosecutors, though, maintain that the girl was the victim of child abuse.
SEE RELATED STORY: Kim Kardashian joins legislators in support of Texas mother on death row
Lucio’s lawyers have filed various legal appeals seeking to stop her execution. She also has a clemency application before the Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles, which is set to consider her case on Monday. Republican Gov. Greg Abbott could also play a role in deciding Lucio’s fate. If put to death, Lucio would be the first Latina ever executed by Texas and the first woman the state has put to death since 2014.
Here’s what to know as Lucio’s execution approaches:
WHAT ISSUES ARE BEING DEBATED IN THE CASE?
Lucio’s attorneys say her capital murder conviction was based on an unreliable and coerced confession that was the result of relentless questioning and her long history of sexual, physical and emotional abuse. They say Lucio wasn’t allowed to present evidence questioning the validity of her confession.
Her lawyers also contend that unscientific and false evidence misled jurors into believing Mariah’s injuries only could have been caused by physical abuse and not by medical complications from a severe fall.
“I knew that what I was accused of doing was not true. My children have always been my world and although my choices in life were not good I would have never hurt any of my children in such a way,” Lucio wrote in a letter to Texas lawmakers.
Cameron County District Attorney Luis Saenz, whose office prosecuted the case, has said he disagrees with Lucio’s lawyers’ claims that new evidence would exonerate her. Prosecutors say Lucio had a history of drug abuse and at times had lost custody of some of her 14 children.
During a sometimes contentious Texas House committee hearing on Lucio’s case this month, Saenz initially pushed back on requests to use his power to stop the execution, before later saying he would intervene if the courts didn’t act.
“I don’t disagree with all the scrutiny this case is getting. I welcome that,” Saenz said.
Armando Villalobos was the county’s district attorney when Lucio was convicted in 2008, and Lucio’s lawyers allege that he pushed for a conviction to help his reelection bid. In 2014, Villalobos was sentenced to 13 years in federal prison for a bribery scheme related to offering favorable prosecutorial decisions.
WHO IS CALLING FOR LUCIO’S EXECUTION TO BE STOPPED?
More than half the members of the Texas House and Senate have asked that her execution be halted. A bipartisan group of Texas lawmakers traveled this month to Gatesville, where the state houses female death row inmates, and prayed with Lucio.
Five of the 12 jurors who sentenced Lucio and one alternate juror have questioned their decision and asked she get a new trial. And Lucio’s cause also has the backing of faith leaders and was featured on HBO’s “Last Week Tonight with John Oliver.”
Lucio’s family and supporters have been traveling throughout Texas and holding rallies and screenings of a 2020 documentary about her case, “The State of Texas vs. Melissa.”
WHERE DO EFFORTS TO HALT HER EXECUTION STAND?
Appeals seeking to stop Lucio’s execution are pending in state and federal courts.
The Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles is considering a request to either commute her death sentence to life imprisonment or grant her a 120-day execution reprieve.
Any decision by the parole board to commute her sentence or grant the reprieve would need Abbott’s approval. The governor, who has granted clemency to only one death row inmate since taking office in 2015, could also unilaterally issue a 30-day execution stay. Abbott commuted a death sentence to life without parole for Thomas “Bart” Whitaker, who was convicted of fatally shooting his mother and brother. Whitaker’s father was also shot but survived and led the effort to spare his son’s life.
HOW FREQUENTLY ARE WOMEN EXECUTED?
It’s rare in the U.S. for a woman to be executed, according to the Washington-based Death Penalty Information Center, a nonprofit that opposes capital punishment. Women have accounted for only 3.6% of the more than 16,000 confirmed executions in the U.S. dating back to the colonial period in the 1600s, according to the group’s data.
Since the U.S. Supreme Court reinstated the death penalty in 1976, there have been 17 women executed throughout the nation, according to the data. Texas has put more women to death – six – than any other state. Oklahoma is next, with three, and Florida has executed two.
The federal government has executed one woman since 1976. Lisa Montgomery, of Kansas, received a lethal injection in January 2021 after the Trump administration resumed executions in the federal system following a 17-year hiatus. The Justice Department has halted executions again under the Biden administration.
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